16 May 2014

Summer

*SUMMER*



Summer is the warmest of the four temperate seasons, falling between spring and autumn. At the summer solstice, the days are longest and the nights are shortest, with 
day-length decreasing as the season progresses after the solstice. The date of the beginning of summer varies according to climate, tradition and culture, but when it is 
summer in the Northern Hemisphere it is winter in the Southern Hemisphere, and vice versa. Summer is traditionally associated with hot weather. In the Mediterranean 
regions, it is also associated with dry weather, while in other places (particularly in Eastern Asia because of the Monsoon) it is associated with rainy weather. The wet 
season is the main period of vegetation growth within the savanna climate regime. Where the wet season is associated with a seasonal shift in the prevailing winds, it is 
known as a monsoon. In the northern Atlantic Ocean, a distinct tropical cyclone season occurs from 1 June to 30 November. The statistical peak of the Atlantic hurricane 
season is 10 September. The Northeast Pacific Ocean has a broader period of activity, but in a similar time frame to the Atlantic. The Northwest Pacific sees tropical 
cyclones year-round, with a minimum in February and March and a peak in early September. In the North Indian basin, storms are most common from April to December, 
with peaks in May and November. In the Southern Hemisphere, the tropical cyclone season runs from 1 November until the end of April with peaks in mid-February to early 
March. Thunderstorm season in the USA and Canada runs in the spring through summer. These storms can produce hail, strong winds and tornadoes, usually during the 
afternoon and evening. In Australia and New Zealand, Summer officially begins on 1 December and ends on 28 and 29 February. People take advantage of the warmer 
temperatures by spending more time outdoors during the summer. 


Activities such as traveling to the beach and picnics occur during summer months. Sports such as 
basketball, American football, volleyball, skateboarding, baseball, softball, cricket, tennis, and water polo are played. Water sports also occur. These include water skiing, 
wake boarding, swimming, surfing, and tubing. Schools and universities typically have a summer break to take advantage of the warmer weather and longer days. In almost 
all countries, children are out of school during this time of year for summer break, although dates vary. In the United States, public schools usually end in early June while 
colleges get out in early May. In India, school ends in April and resumes in early June. In England and Wales, school ends in mid-July and resumes again in early 
September; in Scotland the summer holiday begins in late June and ends in mid- to late-August. In Pakistan school usually ends in early June and resumes in mid 
September. In the Philippines the months of April and May make up the summer break In the Southern hemisphere, school summer holiday dates include the major 
holidays of Christmas and New Year's Day. School summer holidays in Australia, New Zealand and South Africa begin in mid-December and end in late January, with the 
dates varying between states. In Cameroon and Nigeria, Schools usually go for Summer vacation in mid-July and resume back in the later weeks of September or first week 
of October. 
From an astronomical view, the equinoxes and solstices would be the middle of the respective seasons but a variable seasonal lag means that the meteorological start of 
the season, which is based on average temperature patterns, occurs several weeks later than the start of the astronomical season. According to meteorologists, summer 
extends for the whole months of June, July, and August in the northern hemisphere and the whole months of December, January, and February in the southern hemisphere. 
Under meteorological definitions, all seasons are arbitrarily set to start at the beginning of a calendar month and end at the end of a month. This meteorological definition of 
summer also aligns with the commonly viewed notion of summer as the season with the longest (and warmest) days of the year, in which daylight predominates. The 
meteorological reckoning of seasons is used in Austria, Denmark and the former Soviet Union. It is also used by many in the United Kingdom. In Ireland, the summer 
months according to the national meteorological service, Met √Čireann, are June, July and August. However, according to the Irish Calendar summer begins 1 May and ends 
1 August. School textbooks in Ireland follow the cultural norm of summer commencing on 1 May rather than the meteorological definition of 1 June.
Days continue to lengthen from equinox to solstice and summer days progressively shorten after the solstice, so meteorological summer encompasses the build-up to the 
longest day and a diminishing thereafter, with summer having many more hours of daylight than spring. Reckoning by hours of daylight alone, summer solstice marks the 
midpoint, not the beginning, of the seasons. Midsummer takes place over the shortest night of the year, which is the summer solstice, or on a nearby date that varies with 
tradition.


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